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Marmaris Info
Kemal Seyfettin Elgin Blv. Karacan Plaza 54 1st Floor
№ 19 48700
Marmaris - Türkiye

Tel : +90 252 417 11 28
Tel : +90 252 417 11 69
GSM : +90 553 259 24 81
Fax : +90 252 417-0714
E-mail : info@marmarisinfo.com
Skype : marmarisinfo


About Turkey

THE STRUCTURE OF THE GOVERNMENT

THE BASIC ORGANS OF THE GOVERNMENT

The services and the authorities of the organs of legislation, execution and judgement and the public associations and organizations were determined in the constitution in accordance with the principle of the separation of power.


Legislation

TBMM is composed of 550 Deputies. The Deputy elections are executed in five-year periods. The Assembly can decide for a re - election before the election period is fulfilled. The President of the Turkish Republic can also decide for a re - election under the scope of the authority granted by the constitution. The Assembly can postpone the elections for one year in the situation of war. In the situation of the membership of the TBMM become vacant, a single intermediate election is executed for every election period.

The elections are executed under the supervision and administration of the judgement organs, with the principles of equal, free, hidden, one degree, general vote, public count and expression. The last authority of the manners concerning elections is the Supreme Election Committee. The Supreme Election Committee is composed of the members of the Supreme Court and Council of State. Each Turkish citizen over age 18 and completed his or her primal education had the right of selecting and each Turkish citizen over 30 and completed their primal education had the right of being elected. Law determines the method of the election. The law should regard the principles of "Justice in Representation and Stability in Administration". These principles were determined by the decisions of the Supreme Court of Constitution and had been valid after the final modification in 23 July 1995.

The Deputies represent the entire nation and pledge an oath dependent on a text quoted from the constitution. The Deputies had the legal immunity right for their expressed intellects and votes at the studies in the Assembly. The situation of investigation and legal proceeding to the Deputies are dependent to the removal of the immunities by the General Assembly except for the situations of in the act of the crime scene. The stated and decided punishments could be executed only after the end of the Deputy period.

The Assembly decides for the ending of the Deputy service. The Deputy service of the persons whom are decided to be guilty for the closing of their political parties by their oral or written statements and actions also ends by the decisions and statements of the Supreme Court of Constitution. The departure from the Deputy service requires the acceptance of the General Assembly. If a deputy departs from his political party, his deputy service becomes an independent Deputy. The legislation could apply to the Supreme Court of Constitution for the reconsideration and termination of the statements about the removal of the immunity and ending of the Deputy service.

TBMM executes its studies in accordance with the internal regulations which is prepared by TBMM itself. The constitution and the internal regulation suggest the study of the assembly in the shape of committees. These committees are formed according to various specialization subjects and the commissions execute prepatory studies and every citizen can apply to these committees and inform the committee about their complaints.

Beside the special tasks and authorizations granted to TBMM by constitution, issuing laws, modification of the laws, supervision of the laws, granting authorization to the Board of Ministers to issue written decrees at the influence of law on specific subjects are among the other tasks and authorities of the Assembly. In addition, the tasks like decision of minting money, declaration of war, martial law and extraordinary situation, supervision and decision of the signing of the international contracts, execution of the general and specific election conditions and the execution of the death penalty statements approved by the courts are among the tasks and authorities of TBMM.

Execution

The execution organ is composed of The President of the Turkish Republic and the Board of Ministers.

The President of the Turkish Republic is the chairman of the government. He represents the Republic of Turkey and the unification of the Turkish nations with this position.

The President of the Turkish Republic is elected by TBMM, among the Turkish citizens who have sufficient aspects of being elected for the Deputy service or are at the Deputy service and are at or higher at the age of 40 and taken higher education. The elections are executed with hidden vote and the necessary vote is the majority of the votes which is the two third of the number of the members of the Assembly. The service period is seven years. The person elected for the President of the Turkish Republic had to end its membership with any political parties and had to resign from the duty of Deputy. One person can not be elected to become the President. The President pledges the oath written in the constitution at the beginning of his duty.

The President of the Turkish Republic observes and regards the application of the constitution and the regular and cooperative studies among the state departments. He also has the authority and tasks regarding the legislation, execution and judgement.

His tasks regarding the legislation are; to call for the meeting of TBMM when necessary, to issue laws and return back to the Assembly when necessity arouses in order to reconsider and discuss, to go to the public vote for the modifications of the constitution when necessary, to issue law and written decrees at the influence of the law, to apply to the Supreme Court of Constitution with the assertion of incongruity to the constitution relating to the internal regulations and to decide for the re - election of the TBMM when the conditions are met.

The tasks concerning the judgement are limited to the election of members to the supreme courts.

The President of the Turkish Republic assigns the Prime Minister and later the Ministers with the proposal of the Prime Minister. He consigns the representatives of the Turkish Government to the foreign countries and he receives the representatives of the foreign countries consigned to the Turkish Republic.

The Presidents of the Turkish Republic

* Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK (1923 - 1938)
* Ýsmet ÝNÖNÜ (1938 - 1950)
* Celal BAYAR (1950 - 1960)
* Cemal GÜRSEL (1961 - 1966)
* Cevdet SUNAY (1966 - 1973)
* Fahri S. KORUTÜRK (1973 - 1980)
* Kenan EVREN (1982 - 1989)
* Turgut ÖZAL (1989 - 1993)
* Süleyman DEMÝREL (1993 - 2000)
* Ahmet Necdet SEZER (2000 - 2007)
* Abdullah GÜL (2007 - ----)

There are two constitutional institutions stated in the constitution about the President of the Turkish Republic. The General Secretariat of the Presidency and the Government Supervision Institution are charged with the tasks of supervision and development of the government according to law in an organized and effective way. With the demand of the President, these two institutions executes all sorts of investigation, research and supervision activities of the public associations and organizations, professional organizations displaying the properties of public organizations, laborer and employer public organizations of all levels and the societies and cognizant beneficial to the public. The Military Organization and the judgement organs are beyond the task scope of the Government Supervision Institution.


The Board of Ministers

The Board of Ministers is composed from the Prime Minister and other Ministers. The Prime Minister is assigned by the President among the Deputies. The ministers are elected among the Deputies or the persons covering the necessary properties for being elected for deputy service by the Prime Minister and are appointed by the President. The President could end the service of the ministers with the proposal of the Prime Minister.

After the formation of the Board of Ministers, their program is declared in TBMM and is subjected to the vote of reliance. After the vote of reliance, the government begins its task. The removal and foundation of ministries, their tasks, authorities and their formation is stated and decided by law.

The subject of the national defense is stated in the section of constitution relevant with the Board of Ministers. In this section, the institutions arranging the tasks and authorizations are stated as High Command, General Staff Headquarters and Committee of National Defense.

The Committee of National Defense is composed of Prime Minister, Chairman of the General Staff , Ministers of National Defense, Internal Affairs and Foreign Affairs, Commanders of Land, Air and Sea Forces and Commander of Gendarme directed by the President. Decisions concerning the determination, application and designation of the national security policy are taken in the Committee. These decisions are proposed to the Board of Ministers. The proposed decisions concerning the existence, independence, unification and indivisibility of the state and the preservation of the peace and security of the nation are priory considered by the Board of Ministers.


Judgement

The independent courts and supreme judgement organs use the judgement authority in Turkey. The judgement section in the constitution is set on the basis of the guarantee of the judges and the independence of the court based on jurisprudent state basis. The necessity of this search of justice is the basic guarantee of the human rights.

The courts are open to public unless there is a required secret condition. The principle of being equal in punishment and crime, The individuality of the crime responsible, the innocent evidence is in force. Every individual had the right to demand justice before Judge.

There is a functional judgement system determined in constitution and according to this fact the judgement competent authorities, juridical judgement and the administrative judgement are two layered. The Private Judgement Competent Authorities stated in the constitution are the Military Courts and the Government Security Courts.

The Supreme Court of Constitution, the Supreme Court, State Council, Military Supreme Court, Military Administrative Court and the Court of Conflict are the supreme courts stated in the constitution.

The Supreme Committee of the Judges and Attorney Generals and the Audit Department are the two institutions stated in the judgement section of the constitution.




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