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KOS ISLAND GREECE

Kos Island
Kos is located in the south-eastern Aegean Sea south of Kalymnos and north of Nisyros at the ancient Keramiko gulf (Kerme Körfezi) or Kos gulf, just 3 nautical miles from Asia Minor coast. It is the third largest island in the Dodecanese, its extent 290,29 kilometers and its circumnavigation is around 60 nautical miles. From the prehistoric times it was an important channel of the sea ways that started from the Black Sea and along the shoreline of Asia Minor and the islands of Aegean and reached North Africa.

Kos is the birthplace of the father of medicine, Hippocrates, which was born on the island around 460 B.C. and founded the Great School of Medicine of Kos. The island is famous for its rich vegetation and its temperate climate and it was characterized by the Roman doctor Gallino as "the most temperate place in the world". Kos Island Air ViewThe morphology of the ground varies and is the result of long-lasting geological changes particularly owed to the volcanic activity of the commonly known Aegean Arc (Nisyros, Thira, Milos, Methana). According to the latest geological studies seven volcanoes are located between Nisyros and Kos and one of them in the Isthmus of Kefalos is inactive today. The big explosion happened 160,000 years ago between Nisyros and Kefalos. As a result it covered half of the island of Kos, in the western part, with a layer of ash and kisiris thickness of about 30 meters. Kos’s ground fertility is a result of its volcanic origin, which had been known since antiquity and has left the proverbial phrase “whom Kos can’t nourish Egypt can’t either”.

In kosinfo.gr you will find useful information about our island Kos. Starting from the villages of Kos, Asfendiou, Ammaniou, Antimahia, Kardamena, Kefalos, Marmari, Mastihari, Pyli and Tingaki, then on how to get there, where to stay, what to see, where to eat and all that you need to make your stay the best ever, with a large photo gallery so that you can get a glimpse of our island’s beauties. The Marina of Kos Island officially opened on the 15th of May 2001. Kos Island Ancient Agora Since then high quality services are offered to guests. Located next to Kos Island’s old harbour it’s the heart of the Dodecanese islands and serves as the best sailing & cruising area in Europe! It offers a wide range of benefits such as: Pilot speedboat, WC-showers, Trolleys, Parking Lot, Bilge pump out, Sewerage pump out, Waste oil disposal, Refuse containers, Fuel station. Reception, Authorities, Info centre, Meeting room & Guests' Suites. Weather report, Internet, telephone and facsimile services are offered in the Marina's Info Centre and many more.

Kos Island’s Marina can become your own personal haven. We’ll ensure that your stay at Kos Marina is worth every moment of your time. Kos Island’s History and Mythology along with the descriptions of all archaeological sites are written by the archaeologist Sophia Ntintioumi. Kos Accommodation, Sight Seeing, Excursions, Maps and Traditions Kos Island Figulinewere created to provide the best information to the visitor. The Business Block ensures that you can find any professional service on Kos Island at any time needed and also includes a database with the most useful phone numbers. We have included interesting Links that give us additional information on the island and not only. The Events, Calendar, and Weather sections provide up to date information on everything that has to do with the everyday happenings of Kos Island. In closing we would like to point out that kosinfo.gr will continue searching for additional information to include in its pages which may be of use to the visitor and to the island’s residents. Our island which we love, now has its’ own website, created with care so that the entire world can get to know Kos Island like we do, as that island of majestic beauty, lying in the centre of the Dodecanese chain with its splendid sandy beaches, natural beauties and glorious past.

History
In the Roman mythology, the island was visited by Hercules.

The island was originally colonised by the Carians. A contingent from Kos participated in the War of Troy[5] The Dorians invaded it in the 11th century BC, establishing a Dorian colony with a large contingent of settlers from Epidaurus, whose Asclepius cult made their new home famous for its sanatoria. The other chief sources of the island's wealth lay in its wines and, in later days, in its silk manufacture.

Its early history–as part of the religious-political amphictyony that included Lindos, Kamiros, Ialysos, Cnidus and Halicarnassus, the Dorian Hexapolis (Greek for six cities), is obscure. At the end of the 6th century, Kos fell under Achaemenid domination but rebelled after the Greek victory at Cape Mykale in 479. During the Greco-Persian Wars, when it twice expelled the Persians, it was ruled by tyrants, but as a rule it seems to have been under oligarchic government. In the 5th century, it joined the Delian League, and, after the revolt of Rhodes, it served as the chief Athenian station in the south-eastern Aegean (411–407). In 366 BC, a democracy was instituted. After helping to weaken Athenian power, in the Social War (357-355 BC), it fell for a few years to the king Mausolus of Caria. In 366 BC, the capital was transferred from Astypalaia to the newly built town of Kos, laid out in a Hippodamian grid.

Proximity to the east gave the island first access to imported silk thread. Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC) mentions silk weaving conducted by the women of the island.[8] Silk production of garments was conducted in large factories by women slaves.

In the Hellenistic age, Kos attained the zenith of its prosperity. Its alliance was valued by the kings of Egypt, who used it as a naval outpost to oversee the Aegean. As a seat of learning, it arose as a provincial branch of the museum of Alexandria, and became a favorite resort for the education of the princes of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Among its most famous sons were the physician Hippocrates, the painter Apelles, the poets Philitas and, perhaps, Theocritus.

Kos was also known as Meropis and Nymphæa. Diodorus Siculus (xv. 76) and Strabo (xiv. 657) describe it as a well-fortified port. Its position gave it a high importance in Ægean trade; while the island itself was rich in wines of considerable fame (Pliny, xxxv. 46). Under Alexander III of Macedon and the Egyptian Ptolemies(from 336 B.C.) the town developed into one of the great centers in the Ægean; Josephus ("Ant." xiv. 7, § 2) quotes Strabo to the effect that Mithridates was sent to Kos to fetch the gold deposited there by the queen Cleopatra of Egypt. Herod is said to have provided an annual stipend for the benefit of prize-winners in the athletic games (Josephus, "B. J." i. 21, § 11), and a statue was erected there to his son Herod the Tetrarch ("C. I. G." 2502 ). Paul briefly visited here according to (Acts 21:1).

Except for occasional incursions by corsairs and some severe earthquakes, the island has rarely had its peace disturbed. Following the lead of its great neighbour, Rhodes, Kos generally displayed a friendly attitude toward the Romans; in 53 AD it was made a free city. Lucian (125–180) mentions their manufacture of semi-transparent light dresses, a fashion success.

The island was later conquered by the Venetians, who then sold it to the Knights Hospitaller of Rhodes (the Knights of St John) in 1315. Two hundred years later the Knights faced the threat of a Turkish invasion and abandoned the island to the Ottoman Empire in 1523. The Ottomans ruled Kos for 400 years until it was transferred to Italy in 1912. In World War II, the island was taken over by the Axis powers. It was occupied by Italian troops until the Italian surrender in 1943. British and German forces then clashed for control of the island in the Battle of Kos, in which the Germans were victorious. German troops occupied the island until 1945, when it became a protectorate of the United Kingdom, who ceded it to Greece in 1947.

The Market - Agora
The Market place of Kos was considered one of the biggest in the ancient world. It was the commercial and commanding centre at the heart of the ancient city. It was organized around a spacious rectangular yard 50 metres (160 ft) wide and 300 metres (980 ft) long. It began in the Northern area and ended up south on the central road (Decumanus) which went through the city. The northern side connected to the city wall towards the entrance to the harbour. Here there was a monumental entrance. On the eastern side there were shops. In the first half of the 2nd century BC, the building was extended toward the interior yard. The building was destroyed in an earthquake in 469 AD.

In the southern end of the Market, there was a round building with a Roman dome and a workshop which produced pigments including “Egyptian Blue”. Coins, treasures, and copper statues from Roman times were later uncovered by archeologists. In the western side excavations led to the findings of rooms with mosaic floors which showed beastfights, a theme quite popular in Kos.

Geography
The island is part of a chain of mountains from which it became separated after earthquakes and subsidence that occurred in ancient times. These mountains include Kalymnos and Kappari which are separated by an underwater chasm c. 70 m (40 fathoms deep), as well as the volcano of Nisyros and the surrounding islands.

There is a wide variety of rocks in Kos which is related to its geographical formation. Prominent among these are the Quaternary layers in which the fossil remains of mammals such as horses, hippopotami and elephants have been found. The fossilised molar of an elephant of gigantic proportions was presented to the Paleontology Museum of the University of Athens.

The shores of Kos Island are washed by the waters of the Aegean Sea. Its coastline is 112 km long and is caressed by long immaculate beaches, leading to its main industry being tourism. Farming is the principal occupation of many of the island's inhabitants, with their main crops being grapes, almonds, figs, olives, and tomatoes, along with wheat and corn. Cos lettuce may be grown here, but the name is unrelated.

The main villages of Kos island are Kardamena, Kefalos, Tingaki, Antimachia, Mastihari, Marmari and Pyli. Smaller ones are Zia, Zipari, Platani, Lagoudi and Asfendiou.

Culture
The main port and population centre on the island, also called Kos, is also the tourist and cultural centre, with whitewashed buildings including many hotels, restaurants and a small number of nightclubs forming the famous Kos town "barstreet". The town has a 14th century fortress at the entrance to its harbour, erected in 1315 by The Knights of Saint John of Rhodes.

The ancient physician Hippocrates is thought to have been born on Kos, and in the center of the town is the Plane Tree of Hippocrates, a dream temple where the physician is traditionally supposed to have taught. The limbs of the now elderly tree are supported by scaffolding. The small city is also home to the International Hippocratic Institute and the Hippocratic Museum dedicated to him. Near the Institute are the ruins of Asklepieion, where Herodicus taught Hippocrates medicine. Kardamena is a popular resort for young British holidaymakers and has a large number of bars and nightclubs.

Religion
The main religion practiced is Greek Orthodoxy. Kos has one of the four cathedrals in the entire Dodecanese. There is also a Roman Catholic church on the island as well as a Mosque catering to the Muslim community of Kos. The Synagogue is no longer used for religious ceremonies as the Jewish community of Kos was practically wiped out by the Nazis in World War II. It has, however, been restored and is maintained with all religious symbols intact and is now used by the Municipality of Kos for various events, mainly cultural.

Time
Greece Time is in the Eastern European Time Zone. Eastern European Standard Time (EET) is 2 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+2).

Like most states in Europe, Summer (Daylight-Saving) Time is observed in Greece Time, where the time is shifted forward by 1 hour; 3 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+3).

After the Summer months the time in Greece Time is shifted back by 1 hour to Eastern European Time (EET) or (GMT+2)

Currency
EURO - Greece adopted the Euro as its national currency on 1 January, 2002.

Kos Island Banks
Banks on the island of Kos are generally open from Monday to Friday, 8am – 2.30pm.
Beware there is no ATM at the Kos Island International airport Ippokratis on Kos island, make sure you have some cash or know where to get some cash on arrival in Kos island.

Remember to take your passport to the bank to exchange money into Euros, or cash your traveller’s cheques at any bank.

Kos Island Climate and Average Weather
The island of Kos has a Mediterranean climate. Typically dry hot summers (from June to mid September) and mild winters (from December to March) prevailing. The lowest temperatures being +8C degrees and the highest being +34C degrees. 

 

Kos Island Air Sea
January 13° C 17,9° C
February 15° C 17° C
March 17° C 16.9° C
April 21° C 17° C
May 26° C 19.5° C
June 30° C 22.5° C
July 31° C 24° C
August 30° C 25° C
September 27° C 25° C
October 20° C 23° C
November 17° C 20° C
December 15° C 19° C


 

Kos Island Geography and Population
The island of Kos is the third largest island of the Dodecanese group, after the islands of Rhodes and Karpathos. It is located south of Kalymnos and Bodrum in Turkey and north of Nisyros, very close to the coasts of Turkey and about 200 nautical miles from Piraeus. Kos has a total area of 290 sq km, a coastline of 112 km and a population of about 25,000 inhabitants. The island is mostly flat and has two low mountains.

The geography of Kos distinguishes for the huge coastline which is full of golden beaches and many beautiful islets right opposite, such as Kastri islet opposite Kefalos beach. The mainland of Kos is verdant and incredibly fertile, blessed with rich soil and abundant ground water.

Typical Cost on Kos Island
English breakfast from 6 EURO.
Greek salad from 4 EURO.
Main course with a salad from 15 EURO.
Sunbeds on most Kos town beaches are FREE if you buy your drinks and food from the bar running the beach. Your discovery of the island further afield may lead you to a lot of private beaches, where a sunbed rental typically costs 3EURO.

Travel Around Kos Island
Most visitors choose to be independent and rent a car, as the island of Kos is a great place to discover on your own. You will notice that most cars are either economy class like Fiat Panda or Hyundai Getz or 4x4 jeeps. It is recommended to rent a car in advance to make sure availability and best prices especially during the high season (mid June to mid September).

The island of Kos also offers a network of city buses and the fare is quite cheap. The buses stop at designated bus stops and run to schedules, published at most of the bus stops. Buses link the main town with Kardamena, Agios Stefanos, Tigaki, Zia, Agios Fokas, Mastihari and other beaches around Kos.

Another option to travel around Kos island is taxi, and the prices are published at taxi ranks around the island.
Bicycle rental is another great alternative on Kos island. The flat area around the coast is very good for a ride to discover the coastal areas of Kos island.

Health and Safety on Kos Island
You may prefer not to drink the tap water in Greece. Bottled water is available everywhere and is usually fairly cheap.

Pharmacies are the best first stop for minor ailments. They are usually open between 8.30am and lunchtime. The pharmacists usually speak English, are knowledgeable and can supply a wide range of medicines and first-aid supplies.

After all, Kos is the island of Hippocrates - the father of medicine.  There is Kos Town hospital, the island ambulance service, the health centre at Antimachia. Health insurance is highly recommended.

Electrical Appliances
Electricity in Greece is 220 volts, 50Hz AC; plugs have two round pins. Visitors from abroad who wish to use their own electronic devices should bring a plug adapter and a transformer.

LOCATION OF THE PORT IN KOS ISLAND

Kos ferry port is situated in Kos town, in the north-east of the island, and is a lively and bustling port providing fast cat and ferry connections to many of the other Dodecanese islands and Turkey.

Daily fast cats are linking the port of Kos with Bodrum port in Turkey, book in advance online.

Daily routes are linking the port of Piraeus with Kos and from Kos Island also is also connected by ferry boats with the Dodecanese Islands (Kos and Rhodes), the Islands of the Northeastern Aegean (Ikaria and Samos) and Turkey.


GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES OF KOS ISLAND PORT

36°51′N 27°14′E


KOS ISLAND USEFUL TELEPHONES

Kos Port tel. +30 224 2028059
Our Office tel. +90 252 417 11 28
Kos Harbour Master tel. +30 2242 0 26594-6
Kos Customs tel. +30 2242 2022218
Kos Coast Guard tel. 108

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